Paraphrasing

Non-integral and integral orientation

There are two ways of incorporating paraphrases and quotes into your work: non-integral orientation and integral orientation.

Non-integral orientation, also known as information-prominent, is where you paraphrase or quote information from another source and only mention the author in your reference. This gives greater emphasis to the information you're providing rather than its origin:

 Example

Integral orientation, also known as author-prominent, is where you include the author's name as part of your sentence. This draws attention to the author's important role in developing the information you're using.

 Example

Though most academic papers contain a mixture of integral and non-integral orientation, in most disciplines there are usually more non-integral references than integral ones.