Non-integral and integral orientation

There are two ways of incorporating paraphrases and quotes into your work: non-integral orientation and integral orientation.

Non-integral orientation, also known as information-prominent, is where you paraphrase or quote information from another source and only mention the author in your reference. This gives greater emphasis to the information you're providing rather than its origin:


Integral orientation, also known as author-prominent, is where you include the author's name as part of your sentence. This draws attention to the author's important role in developing the information you're using.


Though most academic papers contain a mixture of integral and non-integral orientation, in most disciplines there are usually more non-integral references than integral ones.