Avoiding plagiarism through quoting and paraphrasing

Reporting verbs

When using integral orientation, use a reporting verb after the author's name to establish the nature of the information being reported. Popular reporting verbs include:

  • describes
  • proposes
  • reports
  • shows
  • argues
  • suggests
  • analyses
  • demonstrates
  • states
  • observes
  • believes
  • says
  • comments

The choice of reporting verb can tell the reader a lot about what they're reading. For example, 'Lim proved' is very different from 'Lim argued': the former implies a hypothesis has been proven, while the latter implies an argument that's still open to interpretation. Be accurate in your use of these verbs, but also aim for variety: don't use the same two or three reporting verbs over and over again.