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Anderson's Taxonomy


Anderson's taxonomy was built directly from Bloom's 'cognitive taxonomy', with three significant changes:

  1. Bloom uses nouns and Anderson uses verbs. This is important because it affects the way we demonstrate these abilities as things we perform.
  2. The Anderson taxonomy introduces the idea of creativity, and puts it at the very top, the highest form of learning.
  3. There is some relatively minor reshuffling of taxonomic levels.

Warning: Bloom's and Anderson's taxonomies are so interwoven they are sometimes presented as the same. Actually, Anderson's is sometimes referred to inaccurately as Bloom's. You don't ever see Bloom's referred to as Anderson's!

Bloom's Taxonomy 1956

Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy 2000

1. Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

know 
identify 
relate 
list

define 
recall 
memorize 
repeat

record 
name 
recognize
acquire

 

1. Remembering: Retrieving, recalling, or recognizing knowledge from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to produce definitions, facts, or lists, or recite or retrieve material.

2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

restate 
locate 
report 
recognize 
explain 
express

identify 
discuss 
describe 
review 
infer

conclude

illustrate 
interpret 
draw 
represent 
differentiate

 

2. Understanding:  Constructing meaning from different types of functions be they written or graphic messages activities like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.

3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

apply 
relate 
develop 
translate  
use  
operate

organize 
employ 
restructure 
interpret 
demonstrate 
illustrate

practice 
calculate 
show 
exhibit 
dramatize

 

3. Applying:  Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Applying related and refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations.

 

4. Analysis: The ability to break down or distinguish the parts of material into its components so that its organizational structure may be better understood. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

analyze 
compare 
probe 
inquire 
examine 
contrast 
categorize

differentiate
contrast 
investigate 
detect 
survey 
classify 
deduce

experiment 
scrutinize 
discover 
inspect 
dissect 
discriminate
separate

 

4. Analyzing:  Breaking material or concepts into parts, determining how the parts relate or interrelate to one another or to an overall structure or purpose. Mental actions included in this function are differentiating, organizing, and attributing, as well as being able to distinguish between the components or parts. When one is analyzing he/she can illustrate this mental function by creating spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams, or graphic representations.

5. Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

compose 
produce 
design 
assemble 
create 
prepare 
predict 
modify 
tell

plan 
invent 
formulate 
collect 
set up 
generalize 
document 
combine 
relate

propose 
develop 
arrange 
construct 
organize 
originate 
derive 
write 
propose

5. Evaluating:  Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate the processes of evaluation.  In the newer taxonomy evaluation comes before creating as it is often a necessary part of the precursory behavior before creating something.

Remember this one has now changed places with the last one on the other side.

 

6. Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

judge 
assess 
compare 
evaluate 
conclude 
measure 
deduce

argue 
decide 
choose 
rate 
select 
estimate

validate 
consider 
appraise 
value 
criticize 
infer

6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together in a new way or synthesize parts into something new and different a new form or product.  This process is the most difficult mental function in the new taxonomy.

This one used to be #5 in Bloom's known as synthesis.

Adapted from http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/effective-teaching-practices/revised-blooms-taxonomy/